Gigi Gronvall examines the controversy surrounding the publication of two H5N1 flu–transmission studies as a case study to illuminate why dual-use research is not just a problem for scientists, or regarding flu. This paper clarifies the arguments that arose for and against publication, offers lessons learned for future dual-use research to scientists, research directors, publishers, and policymakers, and promotes a reasonable consideration of the risks and benefits of dual-use research.